At the Grolier: Amanda Maciel Antunes; Michael Healy; Robert Chalfen; Julia Kleyman; Zachary Bos; Ben Mazer; Allison Vanouse; Jenna Dee; Philip Nikolayev

The verse drama ought to wear the crown, but as it happens so often in life with worthy things, is neglected; the verse drama’s combination of entertainment (drama) and fine art (poetry) should carry the day for all conceivable reasons except for the inconceivable reason that it does not.

To give an audience to a poet and poetry to audiences!  And for this noble purpose, to spring poetry from books so it might escape into, and live in, sound! To give entertainment the soul of art and art, the charm of entertainment! To put intricate music into story! To insert character and plot into intricate music!

These are worthy goals, and they must have excited Shakespeare, the playwright and poet, to give us the best literature in the world, etc.

The audience may boo, as it booed Henry James, so the poetry better entertain and the drama better fit the shades and hues of the words. Plays are not for the faint of heart.

T.S. Eliot, the modern who bemoaned verse drama’s fall as a popular art form,  says on the practical matters of verse drama:

Possibly the majority of attempts to confect a poetic drama have begun at the wrong end; they have aimed at the small public which wants “poetry.” (“Novices,” says Aristotle, “in the art attain to finish of diction and precision of portraiture before they can construct the plot.”) The Elizabethan drama was aimed at a public which wanted entertainment of a crude sort, but would stand a good deal of poetry; our problem should be to take a form of entertainment, and subject it to the process which would leave it a form of art. Perhaps the music-hall comedian is the best material. I am aware that this is a dangerous suggestion to make. For every person who is likely to consider it seriously there are a dozen toymakers who would leap to tickle æsthetic society into one more quiver and giggle of art debauch. Very few treat art seriously. There are those who treat it solemnly, and will continue to write poetic pastiches of Euripides and Shakespeare; and there are others who treat it as a joke.  —The Possibility of Poetic Drama, T.S. Eliot

We are happy to report that Ben Mazer, the poet, treats the task of creating verse drama, in his “A City of Angels,” neither too solemnly, nor as a joke; perhaps superficially, the scene at the Grolier Poetry Bookshop recently resembled a “small public” assembled for “poetry,” and perhaps due to the “temper of the age,” this is the only social milieu possible for verse drama, but Mazer, we feel, succeeds wildly with his 3 act play.

Mazer fulfills what Eliot, in “Rhetoric and Poetic Drama,” wanted:

A speech in a play should never appear to be intended to move us as it might conceivably move other characters in the play, for it is essential that we should preserve our position of spectators, and observe always from the outside though with complete understanding.

There is nothing worse than art that has a “palpable design” on us, and Mazer, by avoiding this common error, has a chance to give us true art.  And he does.

In more general terms, Oscar Wilde is a spokesman witty and elegant enough to convince us of the importance of poetry performed.

Wilde’s The Critic As Artist is illustrative of that great debate—is poetic language sign (writing) or sound (music)?

The 19th century was still imbued with the spirit of the Greeks and sound was the high-brow choice; but in the 20th century, Imagism, Constructionism, Deconstructionism, Fluxus, Visual Poetry and Language Poetry have made poetry on the page more important to scholars and academic poets.

There is no question where Wilde stands in his marvelous document, The Critic As Artist:

Since the introduction of printing, and the fatal development of the habit of reading amongst the middle and lower classes of this country, there has been a tendency in literature to appeal more and more to the eye, and less and less to the ear, which is really the sense which, from the standpoint of pure art, it should seek to please, and by whose canons of pleasure it should abide always. Even the work of Mr. Pater, who is, on the whole, the most perfect master of English prose now creating amongst us, is often far more like a piece of mosaic than a passage in music, and seems, here and there, to lack the true rhythmical life of words  and the fine freedom and richness of effect that such rhythmical life produces. We, in fact, have made writing a definite mode of composition, and have treated it as a form of elaborate design. The Greeks, upon the other hand, regarded writing simply as a method of chronicling. Their test was always the spoken word in its musical and metrical relations. The voice was the medium, and the ear the critic.  I have sometimes thought that the story of Homer’s blindness might be really an artistic myth, created in critical days, and serving to remind us, not merely that the great poet is always a seer, seeing less with the eyes of the body than he does with the eyes of the soul, but that he is a true singer also, building his song out of music, repeating each line over and over again to himself till he has caught the secret of its melody, chanting in darkness the words that are winged with light.  Certainly, whether this be so or not, it was to his blindness, as an occasion if not as a cause, that England’s great  poet owed much of the majestic movement and sonorous splendor of his later verse.  When Milton could no longer write, he began to sing.  …Yes: writing has done much harm to writers. We must return to the voice. That must be our test, and perhaps then we shall be able to appreciate some of the subtleties of Greek art criticism.

Wilde is writing in the late 19th century, before Modernism killed the Greek spirit which Wilde breathed as the very air.  Perhaps the death of Oscar Wilde (1900) should mark the beginning of Modernism/Post-Modernism—with its emphasis on poetry as writing, and even design, as opposed to poetry of speaking, singing, and winged thought.

The Verse Play, A City of Angels, by Ben Mazer, twice performed recently in Harvard Square, leaps over the heavy mosaic of writing into a heaven of sound.   Why ideality is better ushered into our minds by the ear is a mystery all unsolvable; the inspired poet himself is but a vessel and cannot explain it.

We might, at this point, make some self-evident observations.

The poetry of sound works in a medium more suited to poetry itself.

Enlightenment and pleasure, however misty, enter us by definite steps; this is how the material world experiences itself. Spoken language requires steps to imaginative reality, and those steps are at once accessible and elevating in the hands of the gifted poet; most poets strive for elevation but their steps are hidden, or their steps are accessible but they do not lead anywhere.

Ben Mazer’s poem is accessible and mystical at once.  We could use the word genius to describe how simply Mazer swims in the deep.

Music, or self-consciously musical language, allows us to travel to a place; both the traveling to the place and the place itself are provided by the music.

With all due respect to visual artists, we can see at once how musical poetry is superior to what the design or picture does, for the visual artist merely give us the place but not the traveling to the place—only the movement of temporal art can do that.

The poem that imitates painting and provides imagery is doing only a small part of what it can do, and even when providing imagery, the poet must ‘stretch it’ in the temporal rendering. Every tool has a self-imposed limit as well as a certain thing it can do.  Mazer understands this on many levels, and especially in this: his imagery always serves his music.

The painter will use distance for an effect, the poet, time, but the poet’s time is so much more immense and important.  So many things will mark the poet’s temporal journey: exactly what he is saying, exactly what he is painting, the rhythm of what is said, the suggestive vistas large or small, bright, dappled, or dark; the journey can be accumulative or sudden, the steps, a whole paragraph of thought, or a single arch rhyme. The skillful poet builds thought itself with mood on mood, and the Verse Drama is a form which lends itself to this and which seems to find Mazer in his element.

When it comes to temporality, Mazer does not languish in A City, but stresses movement for the sake of movement:

where much is predicated to unfold
when in the morning I unleash the thoughts
that brought me to return as if to break
the patterns of the time that came before
and sever all connections to the past
when time moves forward into a new day,
and motion stirs in the awaking town
to find that all is new, is a blank slate
where history shall properly begin
groping to find its new identity
innocently as it looks around
to find that all is moving forward now

We quote but a part of this tour-de-force, John Crick’s monologue which opens the play; is it over the top?  A lesser poet would trim the speech, fearing excess, but temporal excess is precisely how Mazer’s genius asserts itself in the medium he has chosen.

If Crick merely asserted in a briefer format, “here I am, waiting for a new day,” the whole thing would be a failure; Mazer instinctively makes onward movement the rhetorical form of Crick’s speech on mutability and novelty.

Crick’s passion for the new is soon put to the test by the friendly, small-town, skeptical Mary; she is the human lens of the play, modifying Crick’s light; she is “we the audience” who puzzle over Crick’s mystical, forward-looking, optimism.

Mary: “I might ask you again what are these plans you spoke of so mysteriously.”

Meanwhile, John questions her; John and Mary’s dialogue (Act I, Scene 2) skillfully enhances the content of Crick’s monologue in the play’s first scene.

Crick: But why were you not sleeping at this hour?

Mary: I might ask you again what are these plans you spoke of so mysteriously.

Crick: I promise that I’ll tell, but answer me.

Mary: Why am I up? I was asleep awhile
but then I had a dream I can’t recall
which stirred and shook me and I was awake.

Mary, unlike the town that is sleeping, is awake, and discovers Crick outside her window in the street (he has come to work for her father, the president of the college.)  Mary is made unique and has her dramatic presence heightened by this simple device, and the dream which she relates hints at Crick’s mysterious visit.  So as Mary questions Crick, he then questions her—and she reveals him more than he does himself.

But she continues to press him:

Mary: But more concretely, what have you in mind?
With what do you propose to fill each day?

Crick: With wonderment and with discovery.
Briefly that is the outline of my plan.
To find virginity in each new day,
a spirit of adventure not restrained.
An openness to what’s not been before.

Mary: Concretely speaking, John, what would that be?

The audience notices the self-aware nature of the play; the playwright knows Crick is not being “concrete” (even though he has put Crick in a dramatically real situation: visiting a snowy city at night for a job, etc).  But the critique of Crick’s vagueness is not a simple one; he parries Mary in such an idiot savant sort of way that one cannot help but emotionally identify with the profound visitor:

Crick: Nothing concrete at all, but something that
remains to be discovered.

Mary:  Well, we’ll see.

Crick’s logic is masterful.  The “something that remains to be discovered” is just that exciting secret which cannot be revealed, for then it would lose its allure.  This is nothing less than a dramatic evocation of the Socratic desire for not only truth—but desire itself.

And with Socrates, we return to the Greek spirit which Wilde, the wit, saw as so important (Eliot, too, lauds Plato in “The Possibility of Poetic Drama”).  And as Wilde made clear in The Critic As Artist, the Greek spirit is the critical spirit:

Without the critical faculty, there is no artistic creation…

Each new school…cries out against criticism, but it is to the critical faculty in man that it owes its origin. The mere creative instinct does not innovate, but reproduces.

There has never been a creative age that has not been critical also.  For it is the critical faculty that invents fresh forms. The tendency of creation is to repeat itself. It is to the critical instinct that we owe each new school that springs up, each new mould that art finds ready to its hand.

Wilde was a wit, so why wouldn’t he take the side of criticism:  wit is closer to criticism than to creativity.  Some reject Plato, Socrates, the Critical impulse, in favor of a not-so-carefully-considered-creativity.

Mazer’s self-critical mastery of the medium of verse drama is nicely expressed in the Act 3, Scene 1 meeting between the thuggish Tom and Sam Cross—who belong to the the rival clan of the Cricks.  When they caustically speak of “this play,” it probably refers to a play in the play, but there’s just enough of an absurdist hint that the “play” referred to is, in fact, Mazer’s play.

They’ve got one newspaper, one magazine of any value, a literary magazine, and this is where this play will receive a favorable review, and it will be trusted and admired by intellectuals, and we’ve got one shit Crick up our ass.  (Tom Cross)

The rhetorical style of the Cross brothers scene stretches meaning even as it condenses it; the rather brief scene is entirely effective, with just the right black comic menace.  The scene is a perfect vehicle for character actors to have a delightful time, removed, and yet threatening, the romantic world of John Crick and Mary.  Mazer knows how to build, define and separate a play’s elements—we don’t need a lot of interaction to see what is essential move forward.

What “moves forward” in Mazer’s play is fairly simple—but lest we think this a fault, we should remember what T.S. Eliot says (very wisely) in his essay “The Possibility of Poetic Drama:”

The essential is to get upon the stage this precise statement of life which is at the same time a point of view, a world—a world which the author’s mind has subjected to a complete process of simplification.

And again, keeping with the whole critical tenor of creation, Mazer in “A City of Angels” is cognizant of Eliot’s profound statement (in the same essay) on the economy of great literature, which, according to Eliot, puts “into the statement enough to make reflection unnecessary.”

“To make reflection unnecessary” returns us to that accessibility we need in temporal art—as we pitch forward with that “precise statement of life” “essential to get upon the stage.”

Another issue dogging the verse drama is the “conversational” v. “oratorical” debate; doesn’t poetry automatically sound too artificial for the “direct speech” we expect from actors on the stage?  Mazer succeeds here, too.  His blank verse play, which occasionally rhymes, mostly sounds like speech.  Either the obstacle is not as great as supposed, or Mazer has found a secret key.

Verse drama has not been popular for a long time.  When is the last time someone quoted Eliot’s “The Cocktail Party?”

Ben Mazer’s A City of Angels, which we feel is better than Yeats or Eliot’s efforts in the genre, gives us hope for the form, and for poetry.

Mazer, with the help of some talented friends, has done at the Grolier what Oscar Wilde asked: returned fine literature to the voice.


  1. June 25, 2013 at 8:09 pm

    Advice to playwrights from Robertson Davies:

    What should [you] write a play about?… If you don’t know, don’t write a play. But if you have what it takes to be a playwright, ideas will come to you from the life you lead. You should, however, sift and consider such ideas carefully. At one time I was one of the judges in a yearly literary contest; I read the plays. No year passed without one or two about a sensitive youth who had the soul of an artist, but was not understood by his ignorant and insensitive parents; he either made good and made his parents feel cheap, or he died pathetically and made them feel cheap. These plays were nakedly and embarrassingly autobiographical. They were Revenge plays, and unless you are up to the weight of Eugene O’Neill you had better avoid Revenge plays. In general, also, it is better to avoid the play about the Sensitive Man (or Woman) who is not understood by a crass Wife (or Husband) but who is too noble to run away with the Understanding Woman (or Man). If this plot obsesses you, get a divorce or shut up. Avoid plots in which somebody, in a situation of stress, emerges as a Christ Symbol, and dies nobly for the rest of the cast. Avoid plays showing how rotten the Rich are, as compared with the majority of mankind, unless you really know something from first-hand experience about the Rich. It is well, at all times, to remember that the Rich go to the theatre, whereas the majority of mankind don’t, and that is why there are so many charming, well-constructed, witty plays about the Rich. If you are Bert Brecht, do what you have to do, but it takes something more than the stub of an old cigar to make a Brecht. Avoid plots in which you grossly insult your audience; they may not see that your aim is artistic, and resent you. Avoid plots which have to be floated on a cesspool of shit-piss-fuck dialogue; it may appeal to you as realistic, but it is a reality audiences need not pay to experience in the theatre; they weary of it quickly, and begin to wonder what you are really saying. So say what you have to say in your early versions of your play, then put in the dirty words as a great chef would put pepper in a stew; spices support a flavour; they do not provide it. If you want to write tragedy, be sure you have a truly tragic theme. Gloomy plays about large groups of people, suffering under injustice, rarely produce high tragic effect; the great tragedies are about a single tragic fate. The fall of a single mighty oak is more impressive than the destruction of a forest. It is also well to remember that great tragedy is never written except in an age of profound religious feeling—by which I mean not sectarian enthusiasm, but deep concern with the essential problems of life and man’s relation to something greater than himself…

  2. noochinator said,

    April 4, 2015 at 12:59 pm

    Speaking of drama, here’s an excerpt from the play Rubbers by Jonathan Reynolds. In this excerpt, Mr. Tomato, an Assemblyman in the New York State Legislature, inveigles against a downstate Assemblywoman’s bill that would allow the open display of condoms in drugstores:

    MR. TOMATO. Thank you, Mr. Speaker. I have mail from all over the state on this bill, Mr. Speaker. The people are aroused, and I don’t mean maybe. I have letters from Schaghticoke, Schenevus, and Schodack Landing; Sagaponack, Oriskany Falls, and Kenoza Lake. I have mail from Sodus and Shandaken, even some from Scipio Center in the great county of Cayuga. Everyone—concerned mothers in Felts Mills, common laborers in East Pharsalia, two shut-ins from Cropseyville; good Lord, even the people of Claverack just down in Columbia County sent mail—and Claverack doesn’t write as a rule. Pifford; Nedrow; Hoosick Falls six letters. I have a small drawerful from Beemus Point! I don’t think you’re all aware how much commotion this woman’s bill has stirred up. Ho, they’re dancin’ mad over in Arkport, furious in Bible School Park, drained of all hope in Blodget Mills. That ain’t all, Mr. Speaker—oh, no, you bet your socks. It just doesn’t stop—I got mail from the likes of Sparrow Bush, Tupper Lake, Waccabuc, Wappingers Falls, and West Coxsackie. Even Chenango Forks in the usually happy county of Broome. And you know something? Every piece of mail except one from a family named Wormser in Ballston Spa urged me to vote against this wretched bill. Some even threatened my family with physical violence if I didn’t. The people in this state are stirred up by this bill, Mr. Speaker, up to the throat. I tell you, once you get outta your big cities—particularly that one Big City down there which I don’t need to mention by name, everybody knows what I’m talkin’ about—once you get outta there, I’m proud to say that this state’s filled with decent, God-striving families who decry hookers on every corner and one-on-one skin flicks where they’re always showin’ penetration. Down to a man—‘cept for this one Wormser family in Ballston Spa—everybody I’ve heard from believes open display of rubbers—for that’s all they are, rubbers! rubbers!—and their advertising’ll lead to more and more porn and more porn and more and more porn more. No sir, I’d never vote for this bill, hand on the Bible! I thank you.

  3. Hillbilly Clinton said,

    April 4, 2015 at 4:01 pm

    Oh those plebeian rubes… so hillbilly, so repressed. So Christian.
    Thank God we are enlightened and with it. Yawn.

    • noochinator said,

      April 5, 2015 at 9:59 am

      That’s one response — another is this from a lifelong resident of upstate New York:

      “Funny, bc I know what goes on in many of the towns cited. Ballston Spa is full of cake eaters, so that one is spot on. Oriskany Falls is the inbreeding capitol of the universe for 20 years running. I wonder if they practice safe incest there?”

  4. thomasbrady said,

    April 5, 2015 at 11:05 am

    I think the Christian spirit of chastity and charity is good. But of course there is always going to be the hedonism and the mockery. There must be a paradise somewhere, where all of this is happily and sweetly reconciled? Oh God, yes? In poetry, perhaps?

    • noochinator said,

      April 5, 2015 at 11:23 am

      Both provincialism and cosmopolitanism have their ridiculous aspects, and those aspects deserve to be satirized.

  5. thomasbrady said,

    April 5, 2015 at 7:29 pm


  6. noochinator said,

    March 26, 2018 at 3:20 pm

    Speaking of playwrights, below is an interview with a great American and playwright, Richard France,

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